How Finance Compliance Standards Tie into Print Devices

Most of the standards that exist in the finance industry that are relevant to printers/multifunction printers (MFPs) pertain to privacy and security for the general transmission of private data. This blog post will discuss some of these standards, giving finance customers ideas of questions to ask their print technology provider.


But first, why are industry standards and compliance important?

The importance of securing all products related to the processing of financial data cannot be overstated, as the costs associated with security breaches in the financial sector are staggering. A recent survey conducted by the Ponemon Institute showed that the average annualized cost of cyber related crimes was highest for the financial industry ($18 million) compared to any other industry. Financial audits, typically performed twice per year, often uncover vulnerabilities associated with breaches related to the transmission and improper access of financial related data.

Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard

A well-known security standard in finance is called PCI DSS (Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard). Essentially, all companies using devices that process, store, or transmit credit card information must meet this standard. Xerox, Konica Minolta, HP, and others actively promote their compliance with this standard.

How secure transmission of credit card data relates to MFPs

One might ask how the secure transmission of credit card data relates to MFPs. The answer is if a financial institution, retailor, store front, or other similar entity accepts credit card payments, they may have a process that involves 1) taking an order form or purchase order, which typically includes credit card data, and then 2) scanning, copying, or transmitting that form, from an MFP or scanning device to a local or remote server.

This kind of process places the device that has performed the scanning within the scope of PCI DSS, as well as any server (on-premises or off-premises) that may store the data and/or any related metadata. At this point, according to PCI DSS compliance standards, the private financial data that is transmitted is treated with nearly the same scrutiny as patient information related to HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) compliance.

Other compliance standards

A variety of other standards exist in the finance industry that pertain to protecting financial information, including information passing through a networked MFP. Industry firms are encouraged to ask their MFP providers to describe and demonstrate how they comply with these standards.

Table 1: Additional finance standards to consider

Compliance standard Comments
SOX (Sarbanes-Oxley Act) Requires adequate internal controls for reliable financial reporting, including longer storage of larger volumes of sensitive information from different systems, quick and easy access to digital information
Basel III (Basel Committee on Banking Supervision) Includes stringent data reporting and risk management requirements
SOC2 and SOC3 (AICPA Service Organization Control 2 and 3) Relates to security controls associated with the accounting industry
ISO 15408 International evaluation standard of information security
FFIEC (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council, which essentially covers all financial institutions that do online banking) They now require multifactor authentication (MFA), as opposed to SFA (single factor), as well as a high level of encryption for all financial transactions or OLTP (Online Transaction Processing). This can include biometrics such as voice ID, fingerprint/vein, iris, etc.


Most financial firms are mindful of key industry standards, but they don’t necessarily understand how they relate to multifunction printer devices. In addition to some of the background information provided in this article, these firms are advised to speak to their business technology providers specifically about this question.

Digital Signage as a Diversifying Technology

Companies looking to set themselves apart from the competition may want to consider digital signage within their various locations. This modern-day technology can appeal to customers, visitors, and employees, while helping the companies achieve important objectives.

This blog post will discuss several ways in which digital signage can prove a diversifying force, including through its novelty, display of useful information, and convenience for purchases and other transactions.

Digital signage is novel

Digital signage is still a relatively untapped technology that is largely found in certain industries (e.g., fast food, hospitality, retail). For example, it is commonly assembled in hotels and conference centers to show guests the location of various events. Due to its absence in other arenas, those organizations that use it may be considered cutting-edge by individuals encountering the signage. The relative immaturity of this market is reflected by the fact that one-quarter of print technology vendors view it as a top opportunity for revenue growth in the next three years.

Other than print, which of these areas do you see providing the greatest opportunity for revenue growth for your business in the next three years?

Source: Keypoint Intelligence channels survey, 2017

Source: Keypoint Intelligence channels survey, 2017

Digital signage provides helpful information

Analog signage can certainly provide helpful information; this is why it is used in so many industries, departments, and locations. But digital signage can provide a whole another level of worthwhile material. Due to the easily updatable nature of digital signs, they can show the best information for a particular moment in time. Similarly, interactive digital signage enables customers, clients, and others to find the information that’s most helpful for their particular situation.

Digital signage adds convenience

Touch-responsive digital signage can be used to perform various transactions— including purchases. This is a differentiator for customers or members of the public who may appreciate the convenient access to products and services via the touchscreen. It simultaneously represents a revenue generation opportunity for the organization responsible for the digital signage. If customers can make a purchase right away, it’s very possible they will spend more money with the company or entity using the signage.


Digital signage can help differentiate a company or organization through its novelty, display of useful information, and interactive and transactional benefits. At the same time, the technology can help improve the satisfaction of customers, employees, and other individuals, while creating a new revenue opportunity for the company employing the signage.

Workflow Software in K-12 Education Settings

Does your school handle a ton of paperwork? If it is like most schools, paper is still plentiful across many processes. This blog post will discuss how workflow software can help simplify and organize paperwork as well as the information contained within.



What is workflow software?

Workflow software is software that automates a process or processes. This is obviously a broad category, but when it comes to automating paper-based processes, applications that integrate with a scan device (e.g., multifunction printer, single-function scanner) may be worthwhile.

These applications can take scanned images, extract the contents of these scans, and route them to the most relevant document management system. It can also apply tags to the information, so that it is easily searchable in the document management system.

Other features are possible, but these are some of the most popular capabilities.

Why is workflow software useful?

When paired with powerful scan technology, workflow software can help save educators a substantial amount of time—allowing them to spend more time working directly with students. For instance, quick conversion of paper to searchable data lets organizations easily retrieve information at a later time.

Workflow software also reduces the need for file cabinets and other forms of paper storage, as it makes all information available digitally. This drives down costs for storage materials as well as space. Furthermore, the information is less vulnerable to natural disasters like a fire or flooding.

Another benefit of workflow software is enhanced confidentiality of information. The routing of student and family information to secure databases helps ensure that these sensitive files do not get into the wrong hands.

What do educators think about workflow software?

In a recent survey, Keypoint Intelligence-InfoTrends asked educators if they believe that various school processes could be improved upon with additional workflow software technology. For all processes, respondents were much more likely to agree the software will improve workflows as opposed to disagree.

For example, 48% of respondents agree new student/transfer registration would improve with workflow software compared to 7% that disagree this is the case. The remaining 45% of respondents say they have no opinion on the matter.


When paired with scan technology, workflow software can help educators more efficiently make use of paper-based information through quick search and retrieval capabilities. Other benefits of workflow software include reduced need for physical storage, enhanced security and confidentiality of information, and in some cases reduced costs.

Improving Accounting Workflows Tied to Purchasing

When considering which accounting-related workflows need improvement, it’s important to not overlook those tied to purchasing. This insight piece will discuss common workflows within purchasing, and offer suggestions for optimizing these processes.

Why reviewing purchasing workflows matters

Before considering purchasing workflows within one’s organization, it may be helpful to understand why reviewing these processes is valuable. Keypoint Intelligence-InfoTrends research shows that many companies are still using manual and/or paper-based processes for various elements of purchasing.

For instance, only 38% are using only electronic documents for generating a contract agreement. With manual, paper-based activities often slowing down tasks, there’s clearly room for digitizing more operations. Input from staff as well as clients on long-standing processes may reinforce the need for newer technology.

Figure 1: For the most part, what is used to perform the following types of processes?

Source: Keypoint Intelligence-InfoTrends survey of U.S. businesses on accounting practices

Source: Keypoint Intelligence-InfoTrends survey of U.S. businesses on accounting practices

Typical purchasing workflows

As part of a purchasing process review, stakeholders are encouraged to speak with colleagues who understand these processes the best. Oftentimes, this means employees that carry out these tasks on a daily or weekly basis. Sometimes, these processes may be detailed in an official policy book.

Organizations may wonder how their current purchasing processes compare to typical workflows in this arena. Keypoint Intelligence-InfoTrends has mapped out this information through interviews with employees involved with purchasing across companies.

The research shows that typically a project or inventory manager sends product requirements or requests to a vendor. The vendor’s legal or accounting department then sends contract terms and payment conditions to the project manager. The project manager’s internal legal and accounting departments then review the contract agreement for approval. If any changes or edits are needed, the contract is sent back to the vendor.

Once the contract agreement is approved, the vendor sends pricing for the goods and/or services to the project manager. A purchase order is created based on the pricing, and sent to the accounting department for approval. Accounting then sends the approved purchase order back to the project manager. Organizations are encouraged to consider how their purchasing processes may differ from this assessment, and which elements may slow down the overall purchasing process.

Table 1: Common components to purchasing

Component Documents Internal stakeholders External stakeholders
Project initiated Proposals, requests for proposals (RFPs) Project manager Vendor
Contract agreement & terms Contracts, legal agreements Project manager Vendor’s accounting department, vendor’s legal department
Contract approval Contracts Project manager, legal, finance director
Pricing of goods Price quotations, tender documents Project manager Vendor
Purchase order generated Purchase orders (POs)

Project manager, accounting

Opportunities for automation

There are various ways businesses can improve upon the purchasing process. For instance, within an accounting or document management system they can create templates for requests for proposals (RFPs) and requesting estimates. These templates can incorporate corporate branding as well as other key pieces of business information; not needing to add these elements repeatedly can really cut down on the time needed to prepare documents.

Another timesaver is the automatic routing of received estimates and proposals into a document management system as well as to the appropriate managers for discussion and approval. Not only does this help improve productivity, but automation based on preset configurations can help guarantee that no documents or stakeholders are overlooked.

Another opportunity for process improvement is the automatic creation of a purchase order upon approval of a proposal and/or estimate. Similarly, electronic copies of the purchase order can be automatically routed to the appropriate managers (e.g., a project manager, inventory manager, and accounting manager). Other automation features may also be part of the document management platform, such as automatic backup of purchasing information on the company server or in the cloud.


Many organizations are still using manual, paper-based processes as part of their purchasing operations. As these tend to slow down the steps involved with purchasing, it may make sense to consider automating some of these processes through new software and cloud-based services. Each company is advised to consider its purchasing workflows in most need of improvement, and seek input from their business technology provider(s) on potential solutions. Contact Precision today and let us help you select the right solution.

Digging Deeper into Managed Print Services

Below the Surface

We live in a connected world. One thing leads to another. Such is the case with MPS, where the engagement works its way up a ladder and eventually becomes a continuous endeavor.

You’ve already determined that your organization is sorely in need of MPS. You’re already aware of how it can reduce your expenditures around everything document imaging—by as much as 30 percent. And you already understand that managed print services isn’t a “one size fits all” strategy and helps solve pain points in your print ecosystem. So, what’s next?

The 5 Phases of MPS

Because managed print services means different things to different people, there’s a lot of nebulousness with the definition. Still, three distinct MPS practices exist today: supplies and break-fix (basic method of converting a hardware and supplies setting from transactional to contractual), infrastructure (optimizing and managing the entire print environment, including devices and supplies), and advanced (print behavior changes, the “green” piece, security and workflow improvements—both the icing on the cake and the cherry on top).

Now let’s take a slightly more in-depth look at what a typical MPS process entails…

1) Assessment: In order to comprehend fleet usage, data must be collected to establish a baseline. There are various ways to accomplish this, including deploying agents to report the statistics to a server or using a USB key to capture stats, and it can take as little as a week to upwards of three months. Interviewing employees adds another layer to learn about document output and workflow.

2) Presentation: Armed with information on breakdowns such as color versus mono, simplex versus duplex, and paper size, the service provider apprises management of what’s good, what’s bad and what’s ugly—the executive summary. Ultimately, cost savings will be shown to give an organization a ballpark figure on what it can expect from participating in an MPS program.

3) Implementation: Once the contract is signed, the service provider installs a permanent system of accruing fleet data, the purpose of which is twofold: to ensure device uptime is kept at a high level (diagnostics) and to gather info for monthly billing (meter reads). As MPS tracking tools are designed for service providers but don’t intrude on end users’ daily tasks, no training is required.

4) Monitoring: In short, the “ongoing” part of the process. Stats are compiled on a continuous basis, fleet right-sizing continues, and quarterly—or another time interval—findings are continually reported to the organization. This is the stage where service providers prove to their customers over and over again that they’re being proactive, not reactive, about resolving issues or preventing them from happening.

5) Optimization: The output portion of a document imaging ecosystem is now managed—but that’s just the tip of the iceberg. The next steps are moving beyond “what’s being printed” to “who’s doing the printing.” Enter print management, and then strengthening the infrastructure via other software pieces that can streamline workflows and raise worker efficiency.

Debunking Myths

The whole concept of managed print services has evolved rapidly in recent years, as have the programs offered by the manufacturers. And what was once considered to be part of the MPS equation may no longer apply. It might also be a shock to some people to discover just how simple managed print services can be, given how it blurs the lines between hardware and software and business process automation. Of course, with numerous benefits and a history all of its own, MPS has seen its share of common misunderstandings, some of which include:

  • A business can’t take advantage of MPS because it recently purchased new hardware. In today’s age, that just doesn’t matter.
  • The organization doesn’t have enough devices to participate in a program. In fact, MPS is a vertical-agnostic solution that’s ideal for any size company.
  • Salespeople are always looking to sell you an expensive copier. Old school thinking, because today they’re really looking to match your needs with the right device.
  • The business can’t afford MPS. Not true, as there are little or no upfront costs—and managed print services helps save money faster than it could otherwise.
  • Resellers don’t have competitive, reliable programs like those offered by manufacturers. False again, as resellers are also creative at finding ways to satisfy customers—and often fulfill the requirements better.
  • Multiple vendors provide organizations with more options and keep prices competitive. Simply put, a print ecosystem is organized more efficiently under a single vision, rather than it being co-directed.

3 Takeaways

  • Managed print services is an organic way of deepening the engagement with a partner
  • The five stages of MPS bring a strategic and optimized print ecosystem
  • Managed print services is flexible and appropriate for all businesses

Light Production Technology Removes Need for Print Shop

Do you currently outsource the printing of some or all corporate marketing materials? If so, it might be worth considering the alternative: printing these documents yourself. Today’s light production technology lets organizations affordably and efficiently print professional-looking marketing collateral.

This insight piece will discuss several key reasons why producing marketing materials in house might make the most sense for your company.

Light production technology is optimized for high-quality output

In the past, organizations may have outsourced printing to ensure top-notch quality. But today, affordable light production devices are available that can print attractive brochures, mailers, and other marketing material.

Premium output is enabled through color matching, calibration, and control technology (e.g., color control and matching systems such as Pantone) that goes beyond the capability of most office print devices. In addition, finishing options such as booklet makers let organizations create more complex, visually interesting, and informative material.

These capabilities are driving the types of applications being used on light production devices. Keypoint Intelligence-InfoTrends research shows that promotional material is most likely to be printed on a color light production printer.

Figure 1: Print volume share by application group for U.S. digital production color devices with 101K-300K duty cycle, 2017

Source: Keypoint Intelligence-InfoTrends

Source: Keypoint Intelligence-InfoTrends U.S. Digital Production Printing Application Forecast: 2015-2020

Light production technology gives organizations more control, confidentiality

When an organization outsources a project, it becomes highly dependent on the service provider to adequately complete the work. In other words, it is at the mercy of the provider to perform jobs in a timely, affordable, and high-quality manner. While many providers are up to the task, there’s always the chance they won’t be able to meet expectations.

By bringing the project in-house, companies have complete control over what is done, when it’s done, and how it’s done. They don’t have to balance jobs from multiple clients as is the case with print service providers. Instead, they can focus on their individual marketing materials.

In addition to controlling the project, organizations can help protect the confidentiality of their material. While much of it may eventually be made public, there’s likely a specific schedule for launching the marketing campaign. By letting a third party access materials ahead of time, the risk of this information getting released prematurely increases.

Light production technology becoming more affordable

Similar to office-class printers and multifunction printers (MFPs), light production devices have seen their prices drop over time. While this technology may have previously been too costly for some organizations (and small businesses in particular), it can now be purchased for not much more than a high-end office print device.

Keypoint Intelligence-InfoTrends estimates the average selling price of a 70 to 90 page per minute office color print device to be less than $25,000. This compares with $27,000 in 2017. The decline in prices helps explain why the installed base of these devices is projected to grow at a 43% compound annual growth rate (CAGR) through 2020.

Of course, the device purchase price is not the only cost involved with light production printing. In order to determine the total cost of in-house light production printing, an organization would also need to consider costs like ink and paper. It would then be wise to compare these costs with the cost of outsourcing print over time.

Key takeaways

  • By acquiring light production print technology, organizations do not need to rely on third-party print shops for the production of marketing materials.
  • In-house printing of marketing materials gives organizations more control while also improving the confidentiality of corporate information.
  • Light production technology provides print quality benefits over office-class printers, and acquisition cost benefits over higher-end production printers.

How In-House Light Production Technology Enables Personalized Marketing

Want to really catch the eye of prospective customers? Consider personalized marketing using in-house light production print technology. In other words, having a light production printer in your business gives you the ability to deliver unique messages to each potential customer. This blog post will discuss how that works.

Example of personalized marketing output


First, what is a light production printer?

Light production printers go beyond the capabilities of office-class printers to deliver faster speeds, higher duty cycles, wider media support, and more finishing options.

Common characteristics of these devices include print speeds of 70 pages per minute or higher, a duty cycle of between 101,000 and 300,000 impressions per month (for a color light production system), and support for heavier paper stocks as well as coated and uncoated stock.

How can light production printers create personalized output?

Light production print technology is capable of variable data printing (VDP), or the ability for visual elements (e.g., text, graphics, images) to be changed from one printed piece to the next without stopping or slowing down the printing process.

With variable data printing, a separate file is created as a text file, database file, or spreadsheet—depending on the particular variable data printing software being used. This file could contain a title, name, address, individualized graphics, prices, and any other specifically targeted message or text that will be inserted into a specified part of the printout.

In most cases, most of the output appears the same (called static elements), but the locations (or fields) slated for variable data differ in appearance.

What are the benefits of personalized marketing material?

Variable data printing provides a number of benefits over completely static marketing material. Individualized and targeted media gives customers the impression that a product or service is specifically aimed at their needs; response rates are generally higher with personalized marketing pieces.

What’s one challenge associated with variable data printing?

One challenge is that businesses must know something about the customer to really take advantage of deep personalization. That data could come from a customer relationship management (CRM) system, or third-party commercial database.

That said, just being able to put a name and address on a mailing piece is still a step ahead of just sticking an address label on a boilerplate mailing piece, brochure, or catalog.


By acquiring light production technology, your organization can create personalized brochures, mailers, and other marketing content via variable data printing. This type of printing can really capture the attention of the customer, helping you boost chances for increasing product awareness and/or generating a sale.

10 Benefits of In-House Light Production

In-house light production devices offer a wide array of benefits to organizations across business sectors. This blog post will discuss 10 of those benefits, with an emphasis on how they go beyond outsourced and office-class arrangements.

10 benefits of in-house light production

  1. Flexibility

Having a light production device in-house allows you to print when you want at a fixed cost. Outsourcing this type of job, on the other hand, may introduce challenges around turnaround time and pricing—particularly when a job is needed quickly.

  1. Confidentiality

Printing on site helps ensure your corporate data does not get into the wrong hands. Most likely a print service provider would not sell your information to a competitor, but the chances for a potential confidentiality breach are certainly higher.

  1. Print quality

Light production devices go beyond the capabilities of office-class printers to deliver outstanding print quality. This is achieved through such feature as color matching, calibration, and control—often with the use of an internal color spectrophotometer.

  1. Speed

Light production products also tend to deliver faster print speeds than office printers and copiers. Keypoint Intelligence/InfoTrends considers 70 pages per minute to be the minimum print speed of a light production device. Fast speeds are particularly important in high-volume environments.

  1. Durability

Compared to office-class products, light production machines can handle more printing in a given month. Color machines tend to have a duty cycle of between 101,000 and 300,000 pages a month, though some are capable of up to 500,000 pages a month. That’s 1,000 reams of paper.

  1. Run lengths

Large print jobs can run with little interruption. This is enabled by features like 7,000-plus sheet capacity that require minimal user intervention. While many high-end office systems offer high-capacity drawers, this is generally a standard feature on light production systems.

  1. Finishing

With a light production printer, you can perform such functions as stapling, saddle stitching, hole punching, folding, trimming, and stacking. You can produce create perfectly bound documents, including lay-flat books and full-bleed books.

  1. Media support

Light production systems often support the use of heavier paper stocks as well as coated and uncoated stock. Other commonly supported media include plastic, cling (used to make items like window decals and stickers), magnets, and textured linen.

  1. Full-bleed capability

Some print jobs look better with no margin or border, including marketing brochures and related collateral. Light production devices may offer full-bleed capability, allowing printing to extend to the edges of the paper.

  1. Workflow support

Today’s light production printers generally have several types of software embedded in the control panel, including software for controlling job characteristics and job submission. These capabilities can clean up pages, check and correct colors, and prepare documents to accommodate finishing.

Next steps

If these benefits seem attractive for your organization, you are encouraged to consider investing in a light production machine.

Give us a call and our team will help answer any questions you have and take you through our light production product line.

Printer and MFP Supplies: What’s the Norm?

The types of printer and multifunction printer (MFP) supplies used in your organization can have a significant impact on cost as well as the effectiveness of your internal and external/customer communications. Before deciding on the appropriateness of your current supplies mix, it may be helpful to consider some norms around supplies use in North American businesses. This blog post will provide some key findings in this area.

Most popular supply types

Keypoint Intelligence/InfoTrends, a U.S.-based market research firm, conducts a wide range of primary research on print- and print supplies-related topics. This research has revealed that about half of North American businesses (comprising Canada, Mexico, and the United States) claim to be only using original equipment manufacturer (OEM) supplies for their B&W and color print devices. The results are similar for inkjet and laser-based products.

Which of the following best describes the type of toner cartridges your company uses in color laser printers/MFPs?

 Source: Keypoint Intelligence/InfoTrends primary research

Source: Keypoint Intelligence/InfoTrends primary research

Breakdown of alternative brand supplies

Of those using non-OEM cartridges, respondents are fairly split on their use of alternative brand cartridge types. For example, when it comes to toner in the United States, 29% of these respondents use newly made compatibles (NMCs)/clones; another 29% use remanufactured cartridges; and 27% used refilled cartridges.

Most of the remaining respondents say they don’t know what type of cartridge they use (10%). This last stat is important: Organizations that do not know what type of alternative supplies they are using are more likely to overlook potential issues including the legality of the supplies. Alternative brand supplies—and NMCs in particular—may violate patents and trademarks in place by OEMs.

Perceived discount for alternative supplies

Generally speaking, alternative branded supplies are significantly cheaper than OEM supplies. Organizations surveyed by Keypoint Intelligence/InfoTrends were most likely to cite a discount of 20%-40%—both for alternative inkjet and toner supplies. A good chunk of respondents cited a discount of 50% (for toner, this represented 8% of respondents in Canada; 17% in Mexico; and 13% in the United States). While these products may deliver substantial cost savings to businesses, it’s important to evaluate whether any issues in areas like print quality and reliability are worth the lower cost.

For non-OEM toner cartridges, what do you estimate to be the typical discount from the price of an OEM toner cartridge?

Source: Keypoint Intelligence/InfoTrends primary research

Source: Keypoint Intelligence/InfoTrends primary research


About half of North American companies appear to be using OEM print supplies only; of those using alternative brand ink and toner, there’s a fairly even split among the supply types (i.e., newly made compatible/clone, refilled, and remanufactured). These statistics can help organizations start a conversation about their chosen type of supplies. It may be a good idea to evaluate whether another type of supply makes sense from a cost, print quality, reliability, “green,” and/or legality standpoint. For more information on the benefits of different supply types, speak with your office technology vendor.

5 Questions to Get You Thinking about Print Management

5 Questions to Get You Thinking about Print Management

It makes no difference how big your company is or what industry you’re in, the net-net is that you want to save money. One area of your business that provides a golden opportunity to achieve this goal, along with addressing information security and environmental concerns, is your print environment.

The relationship between document imaging technologies and users is symbiotic: You can’t have one without the other. However, when organizations restructure their print environment, many of them place all the emphasis on the hardware and don’t address the human factor.

Evaluating your employees’ printing behavior is equally as important as the careful study of your devices. Who’s printing? What are they printing? Did you know that, according to InfoTrends research, 82% of people say they still print files even if the business process doesn’t require it? That alone translates to a lot of pages that are having a negative impact on your bottom line.

Print management software offers features and tools to help you cut down on printing and, in turn, lower costs. Here are five questions you should ask yourself to help you determine if you’re a candidate for this type of solution:

  • Does my company allow all of its employees to print in color?
  • Is double-sided output enforced by the IT department?
  • Are there any limits or restrictions on how much people can print?
  • How does my organization promote document security and eco friendliness?
  • Can employees print to any device in the office, regardless of cost?